QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
WHICH ARE THE SUGGESTIONS FOR A SAFE CORRECT TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED MATERIAL?
You should apply the correct GLP (Good Lab Practice), GSP (Good Sterilization Practice) and GSP (Good Safety Practice). It is necessary to use the sterilization bags.
WHAT IS THE CORRECT USE OF AUTOCLAVABLE BAG?
- Ensure that contaminated materials are free of sharp objects that may puncture bags. Autoclave bags are tear resistant, but can be punctured or burst in the autoclave.
- Fill bags only 2/3 full. Ensure adequate steam penetration by closing bags loosely, leaving a small opening and closing with autoclave indicator tape.
- The suggested sterilization time and temperature in autoclave is 30 minutes / 121°C.
- Never put sealed bag – containers in an autoclave. They can explode.
WHICH ARE THE PRECAUTIONS TO FOLLOW FOR BAG STERILIZATION?
Select the correct autoclave cycle and check the drain screen
- Review the manufacturers operating manual and any laboratory Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the autoclave unit. Training should be provided for any new autoclave operators.
- “Slow Exhaust” is the recommended cycle for biohazardous dry goods and liquids.
- Check the drain screen at the bottom of the chamber before using the autoclave. Clean out any debris.
- For efficient heat transfer, steam must flush the air out of the autoclave chamber. If the drain screen is blocked with debris, a layer of air may form at the bottom of the autoclave and prevent proper operation.
- Autoclave the load immediately after preparation. Do not leave unprocessed items in the autoclave overnight.
WHAT IS THE CORRECT CYCLE OF AUTOCLAVE?
PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING REQUIREMENTS:
- Each unit used to decontaminate must have an autoclave log where the operator records the date, name, cycle time, and monthly biological indicator results.
- Cycle time must be set for a minimum of 30 minutes @ 1210C, 15 psi1 unless decontamination in less time can be demonstrated.
- Liquids and large loads containing many bags may require more time. For sterilization of non-biohazardous dry goods (i.e., glassware) or liquids (i.e., broth or media).
WHICH ARE THE PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT TO WEAR?
- Lab coat
- Eye protection
- Closed-toe shoes
- Heat-resistant gloves to remove items, especially hot glassware.
WHICH IS THE CORRECT USE OF AUTOCLAVE?
- Never open an autoclave set for “slow exhaust” until the cycle is complete. Superheated liquids can boil over and damage the autoclave and injure the operator.
- Open the door cautiously. Stand behind the door and slowly open it. Allow all steam to escape before reaching inside.
- Let liquids stand another 10–20 minutes after the autoclave is opened to avoid any movement that could cause them to boil.
- Do not override autoclave’s built-in safety control features under any circumstance (contact your autoclave repair representative for assistance).
HOW SHOULD THE MATERIAL DISPOSED?
- Biohazardous materials that are autoclaved should be discarded as non-contaminated laboratory waste and placed in the regular trash or outside dumpster.
- Biohazardous materials not autoclaved (that either cannot be autoclaved or when the laboratory chooses not to autoclave themselves) must be placed in a Contaminated Materials Container (CMC).
WHICH MATERIAL SHOULD NOT AUTOCLAVED?
- Never put materials containing solvents, corrosives or radioactive materials in the autoclave (e.g., phenol, chloroform, pyridine, or bleach).
- Pathological laboratory materials including pathological specimens (i.e., whole cadavers, recognizable human body parts, animal carcasses or tissues) must not be autoclaved.
WHAT ABOUT THE DISPOSAL OF BIOLOGICAL LIQUID WASTE?
Biological liquid waste can be poured down the drain (sanitary sewer), under running water after it has been decontaminated by autoclave or chemical means. Human or animal blood and body fluids do not need to be disinfected before being poured down the drain.
WHICH ARE THE BIO-HAZARD OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE?
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses spearhead an extensive list of infections and diseases documented to have spread through bio-medical waste. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, diarrhoea, tetanus, whooping cough etc. are other common diseases spread due to improper waste management.
WHICH ARE EXAMPLES OF BIO-HAZARD?
- Human blood and blood products. This includes items that have been contaminated with blood and other body fluids or tissues that contain visible blood.
- Animal waste. …
- Human body fluids. …
- Microbiological wastes. …
- Pathological waste. …
- Sharps waste.
WHICH IS THE WASTES CLASSIFICATION?
It is any waste that poses the threat of infection to humans. This can include human/animal tissue, blood-soaked bandages, surgical gloves, cultures, stocks, or swabs that were used to inoculate cultures. Some infectious waste can even be labelled as pathological, which is any waste that could contain pathogens.
It is anything that has the ability to affect humans in non-infectious ways. This can include things like chemicals (medical and industrial), old drugs, and sharps (needles, scalpels, lancets, etc.). Hazardous waste needs to be treated seriously and should be dealt with by experienced personnel.
It is produced from nuclear medicine treatments, cancer therapies and medical equipment that uses radioactive isotopes. Any pathological waste that is also contaminated with radioactive material is usually treated as radioactive waste. Radiation carries with it a number of potential health risks and should only be removed by professional experienced personnel.
Most medical waste falls under the general category, and is no different from your general household or office waste. It includes things like paper, plastics, liquids, and anything else that doesn’t fit into the previous three categories.